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April 5, 2017

Clumped erythrocytes observed are also caused due to the direct lytic activity of cardiotoxins. Various other studies indicate that the amount of cytotoxins and PLA2 might vary according to the location of origin of the particular cobra [35]. All the tissues samples were found with clumping of erythrocytes, which might have been induced by the effect of composite of venom on coagulation cascade causing severe coagulation disorders. The minimum dose of venom which caused pulmonary congestion was 0.2 mg/Kg for all regional venom samples. Present study revealed the similar pathological lesions in kidneys related to acute renal failure, which has been categorized by previous studies about nephrotoxic effect of N. naja venom [13, 53]. Gokay, A. Gokce, M. Tonbul, and C. Gokce, “A novel designed chitosan based hydrogel which is capable of consecutively controlled release of TGF-beta 1 and BMP-7,”, M. Al-Mamun, M. Hakim, M. Zaman, K. Hoque, Z. Ferdousi, and M. Reza, “Histopathological Alterations Induced by Naja naja Crude Venom on Renal, Pulmonary and Intestinal Tissues of Mice Model,”, B. Rees, J. P. Samama, J. C. Thierry et al., “Crystal structure of a snake venom cardiotoxin,”, N. B. Prasad, B. Uma, S. K. G. Bhatt, and V. T. Gowda, “Comparative characterisation of Russell's viper (Daboia/Vipera russelli) venoms from different regions of the Indian peninsula,”, R. Shashidharamurthy, D. K. Jagadeesha, K. S. Girish, and K. Kemparaju, “Variations in biochemical and pharmacological properties of Indian cobra (Naja naja naja) venom due to geographical distribution,”, A. K. Mukherjee and C. R. Maity, “Biochemical composition, lethality and pathophysiology of venom from two cobras - Naja naja and N. kaouthia,”, C. Venkatesan, M. Sarathi, G. Balasubramanian et al., “Antivenom activity of triterpenoid (C34H68O2) from Leucas aspera Linn. Similar to many highly elaborated snake venom, cobra venom also comprises the major two fractions of toxic enzymatic proteins and nonenzymatic proteins also identified as cytotoxins [7, 8]. Last year, Florida-based firm ReceptoPharm had a patent approved for a version of cobratoxin chemically modified to remove its toxicity (US patent 8,034,777). All the venom samples from the five distinct regions were found to be causing evident pathological anomalies on pulmonary tissues (Table 3). Fight addiction with hope, and use hope to actualize a sober lifestyle. When overviewing the available literature on lethality and toxic effect of Sri Lankan N. naja venom on vital organs, the data records do not reveal sufficient evidence to support the factors of intraspecies variability due to location of origin. Snake venom has a place in several ancient medical traditions. Envenomation of N. naja is well known for its effect induced on the cardiac tissue by the cardiotoxin fraction of low molecular polypeptides in their venom [58]. 500 ml of cobra venom accompanied by two live snakes (a baby python and a sand boa) were seized from the bus by the Delhi police. A noticeable variation among above lesions in kidney tissues of envenomed mice according to their geographical location was not found. For assessment of histopathological studies on vital organs, five groups of mice (12 mice for each group) were injected with intramuscular injection of same tested dose (0.5mg/kg) of venom from each geographically separated sample. Abstract. A blank was prepared by using 10μl of distilled water. The median lethal dose of venom of N. naja following intramuscular injection in the present study was determined to be 0.55mg/kg, 0.66mg/kg, 0.68mg/kg, 0.62 and 0.7mg/kg for NRP, CRP, WRP, SRP, and SARP venoms, respectively. But as snake venom continues to gain in popularity, snakes are killed and addicts are kept high. The fine sarcolemma membrane disruption by the above toxins in cobra venom results in abnormal influx inducing various types of cellular pathology [35, 55]. If addicts are willing to go down dangerous paths like using snake venom powder to get high, I can only imagine what lies ahead for our country and her people. Some cobras can spit their venom into a victim's eyes, causing extreme pain and blindness. Antivenom is the only specific, best-preferred, and worldwide selection of treatment for snakebites [3]. As the first step of assessing correct lethal doses, cobra venom was injected intramuscularly (IM) into right gastrocnemius of mice.

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